As defense secretary he substituted (1506) verso citizens’ militia for the mercenary system then prevailing durante Italy

As defense secretary he substituted (1506) verso citizens’ militia for the mercenary system then prevailing durante Italy

A member of the impoverished branch of verso distinguished family, he entered (1498) the political service of the Florentine republic and rose rapidly in importance. This reform sprang from his conviction, serie forth in his major works, that the employment of mercenaries had largely contributed puro the political weakness of Italy. Machiavelli became acquainted with power politics through his important diplomatic missions. He met Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger cri of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. twice and was sent by way of Florence onesto Louis XII of France (1504, 1510), to Pope Julius II (1506), and esatto Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I (1507).

The Medicis’ return (1512) puro Florence caused his dismissal; in 1513 he was briefly imprisoned and was tortured for his alleged complicity in a plot against the Medici. Machiavelli retired preciso his country bella stagione, where he wrote his chief works. He humiliated himself before the Medici mediante verso vain attempt to recover office. When, con 1527, the republic was briefly reestablished, Machiavelli was distrusted by many of the republicans, and he died thoroughly disappointed and embittered.

Principal Writings

Machiavelli’s best-known rete di emittenti, Il re [the prince] (1532), describes the means by which per prince may gain and maintain his power. His “ideal” prince (seemingly modeled on Cesare Borgia Borgia, Cesare or Caesar, 1476–1507, Italian soldier and politician, younger cri of Pope Alexander VI and an outstanding figure of the Italian Renaissance.. Click the link for more information. ) is a supremely adaptable, amoral, and calculating tyrant who would be able onesto establish verso unified Italian state. The last chapter of the rete informatica pleads for the eventual liberation of Italy from foreign rule. Interpretations of The Prince vary: it has been viewed as sincere advice, as per plea for political office, as verso detached analysis of www.datingranking.net/it/hinge-review/ Italian politics, as evidence of early Italian nationalism, and as political satire on Medici rule. However, the adjective Machiavellian has che tipo di puro be per synonym for amoral cunning and for justification by power.

Less widely read but more indicative of Machiavelli’s politics is his scholarly Discorsi sulla prima deca di Tito Livio [discourses on the first 10 books of Livy] (1531). Mediante it Machiavelli expounds verso general theory of politics and government that stresses the importance of an uncorrupted political culture and per vigorous political morality. Vaster con conception than The Prince, the Discourses shows clearly Machiavelli’s republican ideals and principles, which are also reflected sopra his Istorie Fiorentine [history of Florence] (1532), a historical and literary masterpiece, entirely modern per concept.

Other works include Dell’arte della antagonismo [on the art of war] (1521), which viewed military problems mediante relation sicuro politics, and numerous reports and brief works. He also wrote many poems and plays, notably the lively, satiric, and ribald comedy Mandragola [the mandrake], an extremely popular rete informatica first performed durante 1520. His correspondence has been preserved and is of great interest. The chief works of Machiavelli are available mediante several popular English editions.

Bibliography

See P. Constantine, anche., The Essential Writings of Machiavelli (2007); biographies by P. Villari (2 vol., tr. 1878), R. Ridolfi (1954, tr. 1963), and M. Vitoli (2000); H. Butterfield, The Statecraft of Machiavelli (1956); S. Anglo, Machiavelli (1970); Ed. Garver, Machiavelli and the History of Prudence (1987); P. S. Donaldson, Machiavelli and the Mystery of State (1989); R. King, Machiavelli: Philosopher of Power (2007); C. Vivanti, Niccolo Michiavelli: An Intellectual Biography (2013); P. Bobbitt, The Garments of Athletique and Palace: Machiavelli and the World That He Made (2013); Per. Ryan, On Machiavelli: The Search for Glory (2013); M. Viroli, Redeeming “The Prince” (2013); E. Benner, Be like the Fox: Machiavelli’s Lifelong Quest for Freedom (2017).

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